Dr. Khairulina H. Khalid

Ministry of Health, Malaysia

Title: An observational study on reporting rates and factors associated with serious outcome of patient safety incidents at public hospitals in Malaysia 2019


This study aimed to examine the reporting rate, and the factors associated with serious outcome of patient safety incidents at public hospitals in Malaysia. All patient safety incidents reported in the e-Incident Reporting system from January to December 2019 were included in the study. A descriptive study was used to describe the characteristics of incidents and logistic models were used to identify factors associated with low reporting rates and severe/death outcomes of incidents. There were 9,431 patient safety incidents reported in the system in 2019. The major category of incidents was drug-related incidents (32.4%). No harm incidents contributed to 56.1% of all the incidents, while 1.1% resulted in death. More hospitals in the eastern (odds ratio (OR) 12.1) and southern regions (OR 6.1) had low reporting rates compared to the central region. Incidents with severe/death outcomes were associated with males (OR 1.4) more than females, and emergency department (OR 10.6), internal medicine (OR 5.7), obstetrics & gynecology (OR 2.4), and surgical department (OR 5.0) more than pharmacy department. Compared to drug-related incidents, operation-related (OR 3.0), procedure-related (OR 3.5), and therapeutic-related (OR 4.8) incidents had significantly more severe/death outcomes and patient falls (OR 0.4) had less severe/death outcomes. To summarize all, the mean reporting rate was 2.1/1,000 patient bed-days or 1.5% of hospital admissions. More hospitals in the eastern and southern regions had low reporting rates. Certain categories of incidents had significantly more severe outcomes.


Khairulina H. Khalid obtained her Medical Degree from National University of Malaysia in 2007. Since then, she has served as a clinician in various public hospitals in Malaysia before joining Ministry of Health as a quality officer and policy maker in 2013 until now. In 2021 to 2022, she received the Young Leaders Scholarship awarded by the Japanese Government to pursue her Master’s Degree in Healthcare Administration in Nagoya University, Japan. As a policy maker, she has developed many programs, guidelines and policy to improve patient safety in Malaysia.